Archives par mot-clé : Family language policy

Emotions and Family language policy : Some case studies of immigrant families from Europe

Haque, Shahzaman. (2023). “Emotions and Family language policy : Some case studies of immigrant families from Europe”. Academic Journal of Modern Philology, Special Issue, 20, pp. 353-372.


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This paper examines the family language policies in five case studies of immigrant families in Europe, focusing on the following emotions: Pride, Joy, Sadness and Fear. Families who immigrated from India and Laos to France, Sweden, Norway and Finland expressed their first and foremost emotions over the maintenance of their heritage languages in terms of language ideologies. The principal purpose of this paper is to explore critically the role of emotions of parents and of children regarding the maintenance or loss of the heritage language and the dominant position that the host language occupies in the framework of the family language policy. With an ethnographic approach, the principal tools were interviews, recording of conversations, participant observations and field notes, which yielded significant information on language attitudes, ideologies and practices toward the host language and heritage language. Findings show that emotions of anxiety toward enfeeblement of the heritage language were common among parents, albeit not explicitly manifested in some families. Fear of losing the heritage language amounts to fear of losing linguistic and cultural identity over which some parents were frustrated, angry and helpless. Pride and joy were other affective displays, notably related to one’s command of the host languages or powerful languages like English.

Space, family language policy and invisibility of languages


Haque, S. (2023). Space, family language policy and invisibility of languages. ENERGEIA. ONLINE JOURNAL FOR LINGUISTICS, LANGUAGE PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY OF LINGUISTICS, (VIII), 32–54.

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Abstract : This paper draws upon arguments about spaces as a central idea in order to understand language inequality and invisibility through the framework of family language policy. Tracing the history of sociolinguistic studies, space occupies a pivotal role whose importance has been revealed making contribution to many useful theories. Family language policy is the private sphere within the concept of space, long neglected, but renewed interest over the past 20 years has demonstrated in a sustained manner the tussle over the maintenance of the heritage language in the face of the host language. Language invisibilization within the family domain is not confined to heritage language and its accents but also to other non-reported languages, such as secret language and sacred languages. More in-depth empirical observations with new innovative methodologies are needed to understand the inequality and invisibility of languages at micro-level. The importance of the Family domain as the first place of socialization for children, compels us to seek a better understanding of spatially organized language practices and beliefs which have an impact on the whole upcoming generation.

Résumé : Notre article s’intéresse à l’espace, concept central permettant de traiter de l’inégalité et de l’invisibilité des langues dans le cadre de la politique linguistique familiale. Retracer l’histoire des études sociolinguistiques permet de montrer que le concept d’espace a largement contribué à la constitution de nombreuses théories désormais incontournables. La politique linguistique familiale s’intéresse à la sphère privée, « espace » privilégié longtemps non pris en compte jusqu’à ce que certains travaux conduits ces vingt dernières années démontrent l’importance de la lutte pour le maintien de la langue d’origine face à la langue d’accueil. L’invisibilisation de la langue dans le domaine familial va au-delà de la non reconnaissance de la langue d’héritage ou de ses accents, mais elle peut, dans certains cas, concerner d’autres langues non déclarées, telles que les langues secrètes et les langues sacrées. Pour appréhender l’inégalité et l’invisibilité des langues au niveau familial, il s’avère nécessaire de conduire des observations empiriques approfondies montrant des méthodologies novatrices. Pour les enfants, le domaine familial est le lieu incontournable de socialisation première, cela oblige le chercheur à appréhender plus finement les pratiques et les croyances linguistiques disséminées dans l’espace familial puisque les différents phénomènes ne seront pas sans effets à la génération suivante.

Investigating language attitudes in Pakistani immigrant individuals of France

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Haque, S. (2022). Investigating language attitudes in Pakistani immigrant individuals of France. Educazione Interculturale20(2), 74–90.


This article attempts to investigate a case study on the language attitudes of Pakistani immigrants in France, drawing on the theoretical framework of family language policy. Over 37 individuals of Pakistani descent living in the suburbs of Paris participated in this study through a questionnaire on language attitudes. All the participants showed a positive attitude towards the teaching of the Urdu language to their children or to the second generation. Within the family arena, it has been observed that the consequences of prolonged language contact led to language changes (Ricento, 2006) from the heritage language (Punjabi in the case of the illustrated case study’s participants) to the language of prestige (Urdu) through verbal interaction with the second generation. This study also takes into account the linguistic biographies of some students of Pakistani origin enrolled in a Bachelor’s program with Urdu as major subject at the National Institute of Oriental Languages and Civilization in Paris. The reports by the students have further attested to language attitudes in favour of Urdu emerging as an important tool in the socio-educational context.


Questo articolo intende indagare un caso di studio sugli atteggiamenti linguistici degli immigrati pakistani in Francia basandosi sul quadro teorico delle politiche linguistiche familiari. Oltre 37 persone di origine pakistana che vivono nella periferia di Parigi hanno partecipato a questo studio condotto attraverso un questionario sugli atteggiamenti linguistici. Tutti i partecipanti hanno mostrato un atteggiamento positivo nei confronti dell’insegnamento della lingua urdu ai loro figli o alla seconda generazione. All’interno dell’ambito familiare, sono state osservate le conseguenze del contatto linguistico prolungato che porta a cambiamenti linguistici (Ricento, 2006) dalla lingua di origine (punjabi, nel caso dei partecipanti al caso di studio illustrato) alla lingua di prestigio (urdu) attraverso l’interazione verbale con la seconda generazione. Sono state prese in considerazione in questo studio anche le biografie linguistiche di alcuni studenti di origine pakistana iscritti a un corso di laurea con l’urdu come materia principale presso l’Istituto Nazionale di Lingue e Civiltà Orientali di Parigi. Il riscontro degli studenti ha ulteriormente attestato gli atteggiamenti linguistici positivi nei confronti dell’urdu, che si configura come un importante strumento nel contesto socio-educativo.